Words are fun, right? Riiiiight. So let's work together to learn some new ones!
Below you will find the entire list of terminology I handed out in class. Each of you is tasked with finding a functional definition of at least SIX of these terms, hopefully that means that all of the terms will be defined by the time we're done.
Points will be given to those students who have:
1. Commented to this post with six terms and their definitions
2. No later than 11:59pm EST on Wednesday 1/20
Please feel free to interact with one another, share opinions, etc. Also, please remember to list where you found your given definition. Thanks and happy hunting!
(and it is totally OK for more than one person to do each term)
1. Literature: Made up of words, responded to by an audience (of 1 or more beyond the author) - other connected terms for consideration are value, meaning, quality, relatable, tool, and human condition
2. Writing: the activity or skill of making coherent words on paper and composing text
3. Reading: the action or skill of reading written or printed matter silently or out loud
4. Close Reading: the careful sustained interpretation of a brief passage of text
5. Annotation: a note added to a text, book, drawing, etc., as a comment or explanation
6. Analysis: The separating of any material or abstract entity into its constituent elements
7. Argument: a discussion involving differing points of view; debate; [ Latin argumentum] 1. A form of rhetorical expression that is intended to convince or persuade. 2. An abstract or summary of a literary work. 3. The subject matter or central idea of a literary work.
8. Interpretation: the action of explaining the meaning of something
9. In media res:adverb. Latin, literally, "into the midst of things." Beginning the story in the middle.
10. Epiphany: a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something; 1. Usually sudden manifestation or perception of the essential nature or meaning of something; an intuitive grasp of reality through something usually simple and striking. 2. The use of the word in relation to literature is associated particularly with James Joyce because of his description of the concept in a draft of the Artist as a Young Man.
11. Paraphrase: a statement that says something that another person has said or written in a different way; A restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording; A restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording
12. Summary: using few words to give the most important information about something
13. Essay: A testing or trial of the value or nature of a thing; a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative.
14. Author: A person who writes a novel, poem, essay, etc.; the composer of a literary work.
15. Speaker: a person who speaks; a person who talks formally before an audience; lecturer; orator.
16. Audience: a group of viewers or listeners of a work of art or entertainment especially those who attend the performance; the group of spectators at a public event; listeners or viewers collectively, as in attendance at a theater or concert
17. Genre: a specific type of music, film, or writing; a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, content, technique.
18. Subgenre: a category that is a subdivision of a larger genre
19. Canon: noun. The works of a particular author or artist that are recognized as genuine, additionally, the works recognized by a particular author or artist as accurate to their work.
20. Fiction: A category of literature, drama, film, or other creative work whose content is imagined and is not necessarily based on fact; Something invented by the imagination or feigned; specifically: an invented story.
21. Non-Fiction: prose writing that is based on facts, real events, and real people, such as biography or history; Work based on facts, real events, and real people.
22. Short Story: a story with a fully developed theme but significantly shorter and less elaborate than a novel.
23. Play: form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading; the stage representation of an action or story; A dramatic work pre-written and rehearsed for the stage or to be broadcast, usually features actors, set, and props.
24. Rhetorical Situation: the context of a rhetorical act, made up (at a minimum) of a rhetor (a speaker or writer), an issue (or exigence), a medium (such as a speech or a written text), and an audience
25. Value:the regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something; to consider with respect to worth, excellence, usefulness, or importance; Worth in importance or usefulness of a work; utility or merit. The importance and usefulness of the audience take-away.
26. Merit: the quality of being particularly good or worthy, especially so as to deserve praise or reward; 1. The quality of a work being particularly good, meaningful, or worthy, 2. The lesson, meaning, or audience take-away of a work.
27. Criticism: The analysis and judgment of the merits and faults of a literary or artistic work; two different kinds of criticism contructive and talking down to someone.
28. Literary Criticism: The art or practice of judging and commenting on the qualities and character of literary works; the art or practice of judging and commenting on the qualities and character of literary works.
29. Abstraction: the act of obtaining or removing something from a source : the act of abstracting something
30. Experience: direct observation of or participation in events as a basis of knowledge; the fact or state of having been affected by or gained knowledge through direct observation or participation; the process of doing and seeing things and of having things happen to you.
31. Theme: Theme is defined as a main idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly; the subject of a talk, a piece of writing, a person's thoughts, or an exhibition; a topic.
32. Plot: The pattern of sequence of events in a narrative or drama; The plan or main story (as of a movie or literary work)
33. Narration: The action or process of narrating a story; a commentary delivered to accompany a movie, broadcast, etc.
34. Voice: 1. The sound produced in a person's larynx and uttered through the mouth, as speech or song. 2. MUSIC the range of pitch or type of tone with which a person sings, such as soprano or tenor.3. express (something) in words; the sound produced in a person's larynx and uttered through the mouth, as speech or song.
35. Point of View: a particular attitude or way of considering a matter; position, perspective, viewpoint, standpoint, outlook; (in fictional writing) the narrator's position in relation to the story being told; the position from which something or someone is observed.
36. Omniscient: Having complete or unlimited knowledge, awareness or understanding; perceiving all things.
37. Stream of Consciousness: A narrative technique that gives the impression of a mind at work, jumping from one observation, sensation, or reflection to the next. These varied elements are usually expressed in a flow of words without conventional transitions.
38. First-person: 1. The grammatical category of forms that designate a speaker or writer referring to himself or herself. Examples of forms in the first person include English pronouns such as I and we and verb forms such as Spanish hablo "I speak."
2. A discourse or literary style in which the narrator recounts his or her own experiences or impressions using such forms: a novel written in the first person. 3. A perspective in a video or computer game that shows only what a character would see.
39. Third-person: a set of linguistic forms (as verb forms, pronouns, and inflectional affixes) referring to one that is neither the speaker or writer of the utterance in which they occur nor the one to whom that utterance is addressed <“they” is a pronoun of the third person>
40. Editorializing: to express an opinion in the form of an editorial 2: to introduce opinion into the reporting of facts 3: to express an opinion (as on a controversial issue
41. Interior Monologue: the process of one's self-talk. In this process our mind becomes the speaker or advisor and guides our thought processes and subsequently our actions; A piece of writing expressing a character’s inner thoughts.
42. Character: A person in a story; the combination of qualities that make up a person's being
43. Protagonist: The leading character or one of the major characters in a drama, movie, novel or other fictional text.
44. Antagonist: a person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversary. The adversary of the hero or protagonist of a drama or other literary work; A person who is opposed to, struggles against, or competes with another; opponent; adversary.
45. Static: a literary or dramatic character who undergoes little or no inner change; a character who does not grow or develop.
46. Sympathetic: feeling or showing concern about someone who is in a bad situation : having or showing feelings of sympathy
47. Setting: the surroundings or environment of anything.
48. Situation: all of the facts, conditions, and events that affect someone or something at a particular time and in a particular place
49. Atmosphere: the air in a particular place or area
50. Mood: a state or quality of feeling at a particular time.
51. Projection: an estimate of what might happen in the future based on what is happening now
52. Enveloping Action: The general setting of a story including its sense of historical period or cultural milieu
53. Symbol: an object or action representing something more than its literal meaning or presence; an action, object, event, etc., that expresses or represents a particular idea or quality
54. Figurative: of the nature of or involving a figure of speech, especially a metaphor; metaphorical and not literal; used with a meaning that is different from the basic meaning and that expresses an idea in an interesting way by using language that usually describes something else : not literal
55. Universal: affecting/done by all people or things in the world or in a particular group.
56. Conventional: based on or in accordance with what is generally done or believed. Basically "same old, same old."
57. Allegory: a figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of characters, figures and events; A story in which the characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation.
58. Image: how do you image the world? How do you picture a book when you are reading it.
59. Symbolic Action: an action of a person or thing used as a symbol to represent said person or thing; A term used by 20th-century rhetorician Kenneth Burke to refer in general to systems of communication that rely on symbols.
60. Motif: a distinctive feature or dominant idea in an artistic or literary composition.
61. Theme: what's the topic of this book? "I will have a country themed wedding"; the message/point of the story.
62. Tone: vocal or musical sound of a specific quality ; especially : musical sound with respect to timbre and manner of expression; The quality or character of sound
63. Context: the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed. Basically setting the background
64. Metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable; [ Greek metaphora change of a word to a new sense, metaphor, a derivative of metapherein to transfer, change, from meta after, beyond +pherein to carry] a figure of speech in which a word or phrase denoting one kind of object of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them. A metaphor is an implied comparison in contrast to the explicit comparison of the simile.
65. Simile: comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (using "like" or "as").
66. Figure of Speech: a form of expression (as a simile or metaphor) used to convey meaning or heighten effect often by comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener; a word or phrase used in a nonliteral sense to add rhetorical force to a spoken or written passage
67. Form: one of several or many different ways in which something is seen, experienced, or produced
68. Analogy: is a comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it. It aims at explaining that idea or thing by comparing it to something that is familiar. Metaphors and similes are tools to draw an analogy; a comparison of two things based on their being alike in some way
69. Allusion: a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication; An expression designed to call something to mind with out mentioning it explicitly indirect or passing reference; 1.) The act of alluding. 2.)An instance of indirect reference; An implied or indirect reference especially in literature; also: the use of such references.
70. Poetry: writing that formulates a concentrated imaginative awareness of experience in language chosen and arranged to create a specific emotional response through meaning, sound, and rhythm
71. Meter: the rhythm beneath the words in each line.
72. Scan: to glance at or over or read hastily.
73. Foot: A foot is a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables. There are all kinds of feet in poetry, and they all sound different.
74. Iamb: a foot of two syllables, a short followed by a long in quantitative meter, or an unstressed followed by a stressed in accentual meter.
75. Pentameter: A line of verse consisting of five metrical feet
76. Rhyme: identity in sound of some part, especially the end, of words or lines of verse.
77. Internal Rhyme: a poetic device which can be defined as metrical lines in which its middle and end words rhyme with each other
78. End Rhyme: is defined as when a poem has lines ending with words that sound the same. An example of end rhyme is the poem, Star Light, Star Bright.
79. Off Rhyme: rhyme in which either the vowels or consonants of stressed syllables are identical as in "eyes, light, ears, and years"
80. Feminine Rhyme:noun. A rhyme either of two syllables of which the second is unstressed (double rhyme) as in motion, notion, or of three syllables of which the second and third are unstressed (triple rhyme) as in fortunate, importunate; A rhyme between words in which one, two, or more unstressed syllables follow a stressed one.
81. Enjambment: noun. Derived from a French word enjambment, means to step over or put legs across. In poetry it is the product of moving over from one line to another without a terminating punctuation mark. It can be defined as a thought or sense, phrase or clause in a line of poetry that does not come to an end at the line break but moves over to the next line; The running on of the thought from one line, couplet, or stanza to the next with out a syntactical break; the running over of a sentence from one verse or couplet into another so that closely related words fall in different lines; The running over of a sentence from one verse or couplet into another so that closely related words fall in different lines
82. Structure: Something made up of a number of parts that are held or put together in a particular way; the way that something is built, arranged, or organized
83. Stanza: An arrangement of a certain number of lines, usually four or more, sometimes having a fixed length, meter, or rhyme scheme, forming a division of a poem; a group of lines in a poem
84. Verse: A succession of metrical feet written, printed, or orally composed as one line; one of the lines of a poem; writing in which words are arranged in a rhythmic pattern.
85. Prosody: The rhythm and pattern of sound of poetry and language; 1. The study of the metrical structure of verse. 2. A particular system of versification.3. The set of speech variables, including rhythm, speed, pitch, and relative emphasis, that distinguish vocal patterns; the rhythm and pattern of sounds of poetry and language
86. Ballad: a simple narrative poem of folk origin, composed in short stanzas and adapted for singing; A slow popular song that is typically about love; a kind of poem or song that tells a story ( such as a famous person from history); 1. The study of versification; especially : the systematic study of metrical structure 2. A particular system, theory, or style of versification; a kind of poem or song that tells a story (such as a story about a famous person from history)
87. Colloquial Diction: characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversations rather than formal speech or writing, informal
88. Quatrain: a stanza of exactly four lines, often with an alternating rhyme pattern
89. Couplet: a pair of lines of metre in poetry. Couplets usually comprise two lines that rhyme and have the same metre. A couplet may be formal (closed) or run-on (open). In a formal (or closed) couplet, each of the two lines is end-stopped, implying that there is a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse.
90. Octave: A verse consisting of eight lines of iambic pentameter.
91. Sestet: the last six lines of a sonnet in the Italian form, considered as a unit; A stanza or a poem of six lines; specifically : the last six lines of an Italian sonnet
92. Explication: An explanation or interpretation; to explain or analyze (something, such as an idea or work of literature)
93. Lyric: a. Of or relating to a category of poetry that expresses subjective thoughts and feelings, often in a songlike style or form.b. Relating to or constituting a poem in this category, such as a sonnet or ode. c. Of or relating to a writer of poems in this category. d. Having a singing voice of light volume and modest range. e. Of, relating to, or being musical drama, especially opera: the lyric stage. f. Having a pleasing succession of sounds; melodious. g. Of or relating to the lyre or harp. h. Appropriate for accompaniment by the lyre; having the form and general effect of a song, esp. one expressing the writer's feelings
94. Sonnet: a poem, properly expressive of a single, complete thought, idea, or sentiment, of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, with rhymes arranged according to one of certain definite schemes, being in the strict or Italian form divided into a major group of 8 lines (the octave) followed by a minor group of 6 lines (the sestet), and in a common English form into 3 quatrains followed by a couplet; A 14-line verse form often in iambic pentameter, having one of several conventional rhyme schemes and usually featuring a shift in mood or tone after the eighth or twelfth line.
95. Dramatic Monologue: a literary work (as a poem) in which a speaker's character is revealed in a monologue usually addressed to a second person; also known as a persona poem, is a type of poetry written in the form of a speech of an individual character; A poetic form in which a single character, addressing a silent auditor at a critical moment, reveals himself or herself and the dramatic situation.
96. Elegy: 1. A poem composed in elegiac couplets. 2.a. A poem or song composed especially as a lament for a deceased person. b. Something resembling such a poem or song. 3. A composition that is melancholy or pensive in tone; a sad poem or song : a poem or song that expresses sorrow for someone who is dead; A mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.
97. Ode: a lyrical poem in the form of an address to a particular subject; a lyric poem usually marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line, and complexity of stanza forms.
98. Drama: a composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character or to tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue and typically designed for theatrical performance; play — compare closet drama; a movie or television production with characteristics (as conflict) of a serious play; broadly; a play, movie, or television production with a serious tone or subject (a police drama); dramatic art, literature, or affairs; a state, situation, or series of events involving interesting or intense conflict of forces; dramatic state, effect, or quality (the drama of the courtroom proceedings)
99. Dramatic Conventions: noun. Any dramatic device which, though it departs from reality, is implicitly accepted by author and audience as a means of representing reality. For example, music playing during a romantic scene or an actor moving downstage to deliver a line that the other characters in a scene can't hear; specific actions or techniques the actor, writer or director has employed to create a desired dramatic effect/style.
100. Equilibrium: a state of emotional balance or calmness
101. Conflict: to come into collision or disagreement; be contradictory, at variance, or in opposition; a literary element that involves a struggle between two opposing forces, usually a protagonist and an antagonist; 1.) A state of open, often prolonged fighting; a battle or war. 2.) Opposition between characters or forces in a work of drama or fiction, especially when motivating or shaping the action of a plot; A struggle for power property, etc. Strong disagreement between people, groups, etc., that results in often angry argument.
A difference that prevents agreement : disagreement between ideas, feelings, etc.
102. Complication: a situation or a detail of character that enters into and complicates the main thread of a plot; a difficult factor or issue often appearing unexpectedly and changing existing plans, methods, or attitudes
103. Rhetorical Triangle: the relationship of the three forms of Aristotelian rhetoric-Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. A speaker who aims to attain perfection in his speech must strive to use all three forms of rhetoric.
104. Rising Action: a related series of incidents in a literary plot that build toward the point of greatest interest; The events of a dramatic or narrative plot preceding the climax.
105. Climax: The most intense, exciting, or important point of something; a culmination or apex.
106. Falling Action: the part of a literary plot that occurs after the climax has been reached and the conflict has been resolved
107. Resolution: 1.) A firm decision to do something. 2.) A course of action determined or decided on.
108. Denouement: The final resolution or clarification of a dramatic or narrative plot.
109. Spectacle: something exhibited to view as unusual, notable, or entertaining; especially : an eye-catching or dramatic public display.
110. Stock Character: noun. Any fictional character drawn from some stereotype or cultural type who is instantly recognizable; a character in a drama or fiction that represents a type and that is recognizable as belonging to a certain genre.
111. Set: to put (something or someone) in a particular place or also can be the set of a play on for example a stage.
112. Props: 1. An object placed beneath or against a structure to keep it from falling or shaking; a support. 2. One that serves as a means of support or assistance; Due respect; proper recognition. Often used in expressions of gratitude
113. Hubris: a great or foolish amount of pride or confidence; Excessive pride or self-confidence
114. Chorus 1. A group of singers and dancers in an ancient Greek play who take part in or talk about the things that are happening on stage 2. A group of singers and dancers in a modern play, musical show, etc.
115. Method Acting: a dramatic technique in which actors identify as closely as possible with the character played by correlating experiences from their personal lives to the character
116. Tragedy: any literary composition, as a novel, dealing with a somber theme carried to a tragic or disastrous conclusion; A serious drama where the protagonist is overcome by social or psychological circumstances or personal failure; [ Greek tragoidia, a derivative of tragoidos singer in a tragic chorus, performer in tragedy, from tragos hegoat +oidos, a derivative of aeidentosing] A drama of a serious and dignified charcter that typically describes the development of a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force (such as destiny, circumstance, or society) and reaches a sorrowful of disastrous conclusion. By extension the term may be applied to other literary forms, such as the novel.
117. Comedy: a play, film or book that is light, funny and generally has a happy ending or any entertainment or amusement that is funny.